Foliage on a branch or at the top of the tree is sparse; eventually the twigs and branches die. Holes or tunnels are apparent in the trunk or branches. The bark may die over the tunnels and fall off, revealing trails. Sap or a sawdustlike material sometimes surrounds the holes. Weak, young, or newly transplanted trees may be killed.
Cut out and destroy all dead and dying branches, and remove severely infected young trees. Maintain plant vigor by watering during periods of drought and fertilizing regularly.